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Fish farming in wet rice fields has a long history in China. There exists an Ecological symbiosis in the traditional rice-fish agricultural system wherein fish provides fertilizer to rice, regulates micro-climatic conditions, softens the soil, disturbs the water, and eats larvae and weeds in the flooded fields; rice provides shade and food for fish.

This type of rice-fish farming in Longxian village of Zhejiang province demonstrates an ingenious approach to generating ecological, economic and social benefits through encouraging essential ecological functions. The multiple products and ecological services from the co-ecosystems are beneficial to local farmers and the environment and the high quality food of fish and rice are helpful to maintain farmers’ nutrient and living standards. Productive efficiency is increased by the reduced cost, labor and the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides for insect and weed control. It also helps in agro-biological conservation and field environmental protection.